Useful Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD) References

On this page, we list a number of peer-reviewed papers covering most aspects of the Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD) technique, especially those topics discussed in the preceding “EBSD Techniques” pages. The list is not exhaustive and there are many additional publications that may be equally important as those shown here. In addition, the EBSD technique is being constantly developed and the reader is encouraged to look out for publications that introduce new technologies into the EBSD field.

General EBSD Technique

Below are some of the key papers that outline the major historical developments of the EBSD technique.

M.N. Alam, M. Blackman and D.W. Pashley (1954). High-angle Kikuchi patterns. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London A 221, 224-242

D.G. Coates (1967). Kikuchi-like Reflection Patterns Obtained with the SEM, Philosophical Magazine, 16, p1179.

J.A. Venables and C.J. Harland, (1973). Electron Backscattering Patterns - A new Technique for Obtaining Crystallographic Information in the Scanning Electron microscope, Philosophical Magazine, 27, 1193-1200.

D.J. Dingley (1984). Diffraction from sub-micron Areas using Electron Backscattering in a Scanning Electron Microscope, Scanning Electron Microscopy II, p569-575.

N-H. Schmidt and N.Ø. Oleson (1989). Computer-Aided Determination of Crystal-Lattice Orientation from Electron-Channeling Patterns in the SEM, Canadian Mineralogist, 28, p15-22.

S.I. Wright, J. Zhao and B.L. Adams, (1991). Automated Determination of Lattice Orientation from Electron Backscattered Kikuchi Diffraction Patterns, Textures and Microstructures, 13, p123-131.

N.C. Krieger Lassen, D. Juul Jensen and K Conradsen (1992). Image processing procedures for analysis of electron back scattering patterns, Scanning Microscopy 6, 115-121. Scanning Microscopy (1992) 6, 115-121.

There have been a number of review papers about EBSD that give a good overview of the technique, as well as comparisons with other microanalytical approaches:

F. J. Humphreys (2001), Grain and subgrain characterisation by electron backscatter diffraction. J. Mater. Sci. 36, 3833–3854.
S. Zaefferer (2011), A critical review of orientation microscopy in SEM and TEM. Cryst. Res. Technol. 46, 607–628.
A. J. Wilkinson and T. B. Britton (2012). Strains, planes and EBSD in materials science. Materials Today 15, 366–376.
R.Borrajo-Pelaez & P. Hedström (2017). Recent Developments of Crystallographic Analysis Methods in the Scanning Electron Microscope for Applications in Metallurgy, Critical Reviews in Solid State and Materials Sciences, DOI:10.1080/10408436.2017.1370576
I. Carneiro and S. Simões (2020). Recent Advances in EBSD Characterization of Metals. Metals 10, 1097; doi:10.3390/met10081097 

An overview book about EBSD, with multiple chapters covering a wide range of topics from specific EBSD techniques to novel applications in the materials sciences, providing a good (although now slightly dated) introduction to EBSD:

A.J. Schwartz, M. Kumar, B. L. Adams and D.P. Field (eds) (2009). Electron Backscatter Diffraction in Materials Science, Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers,

Novel Indexing Approaches

A. Winkelmann, C. Trager-Cowan, F. Sweeney, A. P. Day, and P. Parbrook (2007), Many-beam dynamical simulation of electron backscatter diffraction patterns. Ultramicroscopy 107, 414–421.
Y. H. Chen, S. U. Park, D. Wei, G. Newstadt, M. A. Jackson, J. P. Simmons, M. De Graef & A. O. Hero, (2015). A dictionary approach to electron backscatter diffraction indexing.
Microscopy and Microanalysis, 21(3), 739–752.
G. Nolze, A. Winkelmann and A.P. Boyle (2016). Pattern matching approach to pseudosymmetry problems in electron backscatter diffraction, Ultramicroscopy 160, 146–154.
F. Ram and M. De Graef (2018). Phase differentiation by electron backscatter diffraction using the dictionary indexing approach, Acta Materialia 144 352–364.
W. C. Lenthe, S. Singh and M. De Graef (2019). A spherical harmonic transform approach to the indexing of electron backscattered diffraction patterns. Ultramicroscopy, 207, 112841
A. Winkelmann, G. Nolze, G. Cios, T. Tokarski, P. Bała, B. Hourahineand C. Trager-Cowan (2021). Kikuchi pattern simulations of backscattered and transmitted electrons. Journal of Microscopy.

Integration of EDS and EBSD

R. P. Goehner and J. R. Michael (1996). Phase Identification in a Scanning Electron Microscope Using Backscattered Electron Kikuchi Patterns. J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 101, 301
J. A. Small and J. R. Michael (2001). Phase identification of individual crystalline particles by electron backscatter diffraction. Journal of Microscopy, 201 p59-69.
M. M. Nowell and S. I. Wright (2004). Phase differentiation via combined EBSD and XEDS. Journal of Microscopy, 213, p296-305
G. D. West and R. C. Thomson (2009). Combined EBSD/EDS tomography in a dual-beam FIB/FEG-SEM. Journal of Microscopy 233, p442-450

High Precision EBSD

A. J. Wilkinson (2001), A new method for determining small misorientations from electron back scatter diffraction patterns. Scripta Materialia 44, 2379–2385.
A.J. Wilkinson, G. Meaden and D.J. Dingley (2006). High-resolution elastic strain measurement from electron backscatter diffraction patterns: new levels of sensitivity. Ultramicroscopy, 106, 307-313.
C. Maurice and R. Fortunier (2008). A 3D Hough transform for indexing EBSD and Kossel patterns. Journal of Microscopy, 230, p520-529
K. Thomsen, N. Schmidt, A. Bewick, K. Larsen, and J. Goulden (2013). Improving the Accuracy of Orientation Measurements using EBSD. Microscopy and Microanalysis, 19(S2), 724-725.
A. Winkelmann, B. M. Jablon, V. S. Tong, C. Trager-Cowan and K. P. Mingard (2020), Improving EBSD precision by orientation refinement with full pattern matching. Journal of Microscopy 277, p79-92.


J. Konrad, S. Zaefferer and D. Raabe (2006), Investigation of orientation gradients around a hard Laves particle in a warm-rolled Fe3Al-based alloy using a 3D EBSD-FIB technique, Acta Materialia, 54, p1369-1380,
S. Zaefferer, S.I. Wright and D. Raabe (2008). Three-Dimensional Orientation Microscopy in a Focused Ion Beam–Scanning Electron Microscope: A New Dimension of Microstructure Characterization. Metall. Mat. Trans. A, 39, p374-389. 
T. L. Burnett, R. Kelley, B. Winiarski, L. Contreras, M. Daly, A. Gholinia, M. G. Burke, and P. J. Withers (2016), Large volume serial section tomography by Xe Plasma FIB dual beam microscopy. Ultramicroscopy 161, 119–129 (2016).
B. Winiarski, A. Gholinia, K. Mingard, M. Gee, G. E. Thompson, and P. J. Withers (2017), Broad ion beam serial section tomography. Ultramicroscopy 172, 52–64. 

M. P. Echlin, T. L. Burnett, A. T. Polonsky, T. M. Pollock and P. J. Withers (2020). Serial sectioning in the SEM for three dimensional materials science. Current Opinion in Solid State & Materials Science 24, 100817

S. Kalácska, J. Ast, P. Dusán Ispánovity, J. Michler and X. Maeder (2020). 3D HR-EBSD Characterization of the plastic zone around crack tips in tungsten single crystals at the micron scale, Acta Materialia, 200, p211-222

Transmission Kikuchi Diffraction

R. H. Geiss, R. Keller, S. Sitzman, and P. Rice (2011), New method of transmission electron diffraction to characterize nanomaterials in the SEM. Microsc. Microanal. 17 (S2), 386–387.
R. R. Keller and R. H. Geiss (2012), Transmission EBSD from 10 nm domains in a scanning electron microscope, J. of Microscopy, 245, 245–251 (2012).
P. W. Trimby (2012), Orientation mapping of nanostructured materials using transmission Kikuchi diffraction in the scanning electron microscope. Ultramicroscopy 120, 16–24.
G. Sneddon, P. Trimby and J. M. Cairney (2016). Transmission Kikuchi diffraction in a scanning electron microscope: A review. Mater. Sci. Eng. R Rep. 2016, 110, 1–12.
J. J. Fundenberger, E. Bouzy, D. Goran, J. Guyon, H. Yuan and A. Morawiec (2016). Orientation mapping by transmission-SEM with an on-axis detector. Ultramicroscopy. 161. DOI: 10.1016/j.ultramic.2015.11.002 

A. J. Breen, K. Babinsky, A. C. Day, K. Eder, C. J. Oakman, P. W. Trimby, S. Primig, J. M. Cairney and S. P. Ringer (2017). Correlating Atom Probe Crystallographic Measurements with Transmission Kikuchi Diffraction Data. Microsc. Microanal. 23, p279–290
J. D. Sugar, J. T. McKeown, D. Banga and J. R. Michael (2020). Comparison of Orientation Mapping in SEM and TEM. Microscopy and Microanalysis , 26, p630–640

In-situ EBSD

G. G. E. Seward, D. J. Prior, J. Wheeler, S. Celotto, D. J. M. Halliday, R. S. Paden and M. R. Tye (2002). High-temperature electron backscatter diffraction and scanning electron microscopy imaging techniques: In situ investigations of dynamic processes. Scanning 24, p232–240
W. D. Summers, E. Alabort, P. Kontis, F. Hofmann and R. C. Reed (2016). In-situ high-temperature tensile testing of a polycrystalline nickel-based superalloy, Materials at High Temperatures, 33, 4-5, p338-345,
D.J. Prior, K. Lilly, M. Seidemann, M. Vaughan, L. Becroft, R. Easingwood, S. Diebold, R. Obbard, C. Daghlian, I. Baker, T. Caswell, N. Golding, D. Goldsby, W.B. Durham, S. Piazolo, C.J.L. Wilson, (2015). Making EBSD on water ice routine. Journal of Microscopy 259, p237-256
A. Bastos Fanta, M. Todeschini, A. Burrows, H. Jansen, C. D. Damsgaard, H. Alimadadi and J. B. Wagner, (2018). Elevated temperature transmission Kikuchi diffraction in the SEM. Materials Characterization, 139, p452-462,


D. C. Joy, D. E. Newbury, and D. L. Davidson (1982), Electron channeling patterns in the scanning electron microscope. J. Appl. Phys. 53, R81–R122.
A. J. Wilkinson, G. R. Anstis, J. T. Czernuszka, N. J. Long & P. B. Hirsch (1993) Electron channelling contrast imaging of interfacial defects in strained silicon-germanium layers on silicon, Philosophical Magazine A, 68:1, 59-80
D. Prior, P. Trimby, U. Weber, and D. Dingley (1996). Orientation contrast imaging of microstructures in rocks using forescatter detectors in the scanning electron microscope. Mineralogical Magazine, 60(403), 859-869
C. Trager-Cowan, F. Sweeney, P. W. Trimby, A. P. Day, A. Gholinia, N.-H. Schmidt, P. J. Parbrook, A. J. Wilkinson, and I. M. Watson (2007). Electron backscatter diffraction and electron channeling contrast imaging of tilt and dislocations in nitride thin films. Phys. Rev. B 75, 08530
Zaefferer and N.-N. Elhami (2014), Theory and application of electron channeling contrast imaging under controlled diffraction conditions. Acta Materialia 75, 20–50.
H. Mansour, J. Guyon, M. A. Crimp, N. Gey, B. Beausir and N. Maloufi (2014). Accurate electron channeling contrast analysis of dislocations in fine grained bulk materials. Scripta Materialia 84–85, 11–14.

Texture Analysis

H. J. Bunge (1982). Texture Analysis in Materials Science: Mathematical Methods. Butterworth and Co., London
O. Engler and V. Randle (2009). Introduction to Texture Analysis: Macrotexture, Microtexture, and Orientation Mapping, Second Edition, CRC Press,
F. J. Humphreys and M. Hatherly (2004). Recrystallization and Related Annealing Phenomena, Elsevier (2nd Edition)